Lingayen, Pangasinan, Philippines
prpio@psu.edu.ph

Asian Multidisciplinary Research Conference 2020 – Online Conference Website

Opening Program – Scheduled Live

December 19, 2020

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Special Presentation

Gayan Nayanajith

University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

Plenary Speakers

Dr. Jun S. Camara

PARESSU, Inc.

Dr. Ethel Reyes-Chua

Emilio Aguinaldo College – Cavite

Dr. Narciso A. Martin, Jr

Department of Education, Don Eulogio de Guzman Memorial National High School, La Union

Gayan Nayanajith

University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

BEST PRESENTER

Dr. Jake M. Laguador

Bicol State College of Applied Sciences and Technology, Naga City

Exploring the Programming Skills, Compensation, Gender, and Experience of Software
Engineers in Global Perspective

Best Papers

POSTED: DECEMBER 20, 2020

Natural and Allied Sciences

Ecological and Socio – Economic Impact Assessment of the Toxic, Red Tide Dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense in Pujada Bay and Balete Bay, Davao Oriental, Southeastern Mindanao
Eleanor Vilela

Education, Management and Social Sciences

Reap What You Sow: Lived Experiences of Modular Learners in The New Norm
Mignodel M. Morales

Engineering, Technology & Computing Sciences

Development of Online Marketing Platform for Selected Products of Pangasinan
Kurt Philip P. Danlog

Gender Studies

Carrying the Cross: Being Homosexual Christians in the Philippines
Amram Jezron B. Inere

Research Presentations

Click “Research Presentation” to view

Online Examination: A Case Study Exploring College Instructors’ Perceptions and Experience of an Online Course in the New Normal

Christian Cariaso President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines Philippines

This study aims to explore the college instructors’ perceptions and experience before, during and after the conduct of online examination in synchronous and asynchronous learning in the new normal at President Ramon Magsaysay State University (PRMSU), Masinloc Campus. The research was conducted with 20 college instructors during the first semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. The data obtained from experienced in utilizing Edmodo Application, messenger, and e-mails in the conduct of online examination of students that were analyzed descriptively. Coding and categorizing were used to analyze the data. To have a meaningful structure, themes that were revealed as a result of the compilation of encodings were arranged appropriately. The results revealed that the following perceptions and experience occurred in the process of instructors before, during and after online exams of students, their computer literacy, the nature of test being new to the instructors and students in the new normal, the presentation of questions in a computer-generated conditions and technical difficulties. The instructors’ technical skills and ability to use a computer is an important factor in the emergence of problems and difficulties. The leading outcome of the study was the need for an orientation program which will assist the faculty members in the conduct of online examinations and the online courses.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Acceptability of Tamarind Wheat Bread

Geraldine Mamaril Pangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

Tamarindus indica Linn, also known as Sampalok in the Philippines, is a hardwood tree that is native to Africa but also grows in many other tropical regions like the Philippines. There are two kinds of tamarind, these are sweet and sour. Sweet kind tamarinds are usually eaten as a snack while the sour kind are usually used as a major ingredient in “Sinigang”. Tamarind are rich in water, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium and phosphorus. It also contains thiamine, niacin and vitamin C. Wheat is the oldest cultivated cereal and most widely cultivated in quantity produced. Whole wheat are usually used to make flour which then used in making breads and pastries. Whole wheat flour are rich in fibers, protein, calcium iron, thiamine and riboflavin. Buying wheat bread is now becoming a healthier choice for many of us especially the health conscious ones. Thus, the research was undertaken to improve the nutritional content as well as the flavour of wheat bread. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn) Wheat Bread. However, three formulations were made to identify the best preparation of Tamarind Wheat Bread. It was found out that the formulation 3 which has 2 cups tamarind balls and 2 ¾ cups of wheat flour had the highest level of acceptability descriptive rating. Moreover, an improvement in appearance and taste of tamarind wheat bread is recommended.

Research Presentation
Satisfaction Index among Lactating Mothers

Geraldine Mamaril  Pangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

The practice of breastfeeding is in highlight with the initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in bringing the first 1000 days of life from pregnancy up to two years of life to promote good health and nutrition. Global breastfeeding advocacy initiative of the UNICEF shows that the exclusive breastfeeding rates has a slow progress rate worldwide. (UNICEF Global Database, 2015.). This study aimed to find out the satisfaction index among lactating mothers in the implementation of breastfeeding advocacy program in RHU Mabini, Pangasinan. Findings of the study showed that most of the lactating mothers are within the age bracket of 24 – 28 years old, married, finished high school education, have family members of 4 – 6, mostly unemployed and have a lower monthly family income of 5,000 and below. The degree of satisfaction in receiving the services of breastfeeding advocacy program showed highly satisfied lactating mothers. The degree of seriousness of the problems met by the lactating mothers are less serious while for the significant difference between the degrees of satisfaction across the profile variables was not significant. Lactating mothers were highly satisfied with services being provided, they were informed and have the proper knowledge regarding breastfeeding. Most mothers faced less serious to a not a problem at all. However, a small portion of the lactating mothers faced with challenges as they strive to practice breastfeeding. Thus, helping them through giving learning materials will serve as an intervention measures to enhance the awareness of the lactating mothers in promoting the first 1000 days and in providing breastmilk to their baby.

Research Presentation
Consumer Preferences and Purchasing Behavior: A Study on Lingayen, Pangasinan Fish Paste Products

Sheena Doria  Pangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

Bagoong, commonly known as fish paste or shrimp paste, is undeniably one of the most popular condiments not just in the Philippines but also in Asia. The most popular bagoong products in the Philippines hail from Lingayen, Pangasinan. In 2012, bagoong was officially chosen as the One Town, One Product (OTOP) of Lingayen. As of 2019, DTI Pangasinan has reported 136 registered businesses for bagoong, 24 of which are from Lingayen, Pangasinan, but it was said that a lot of these businesses only sell bagoong as an allied product. In a survey conducted with 250 respondents from different parts of the Philippines, 45.6% are extremely familiar with Lingayen Bagoong, 30.4% are moderately familiar, 18.4% are somewhat familiar and only 5.8% are completely unfamiliar. 80% of those who tried, believe that Lingayen Bagoong is distinctive from other fish paste of other places. 34.8% of the respondents cannot differentiate one brand of Lingayen Bagoong from another. When buying fish paste products, 82% consider aroma as their top priority, followed by price and brand. 90.4% of respondents use bagoong as a dip (sawsawan) and 88% use it as a condiment or seasoning to dishes. Almost half of the respondents (40.8%) purchase bagoong once a month, and 27.2% of which, purchase once a week only. 60.8% generally buy and consume 320 mL bottle of bagoong instead of pouches and big bottles as it is the most widely available, as answered by 61.2% of the respondents. The study also revealed that one third (33%) are willing to buy through online platforms such as Shopee and Lazada. Consumers look forward to new variants and also improved packaging for fish paste products thus giving an opportunity for bagoong manufacturers for product development.

Research Presentation
To Stay or Not to Stay: A Descriptive Case Study on a Faculty Member’s Motivation

Leo De Vera
Pangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus


One of the primary topics of organizational behavior is motivation. It moves an individual to act and accomplish. This is a descriptive case study about the motivation of an employee in a private college. Ten measurement tools employed by various research studies were used in this study. These include measurements about personality type, attitude, job satisfaction and organizational commitment and how these relate to the motivation of the participant. Qualitative interview was also done with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Aside from wages, the reward aspects that are important for the participant are recognition of achievements, promotions, and also scholarships. In their office, he said that they are really competitive with each other and most of them only work just for the promotion. With regards to needs, his need for affiliation is the one that stood out for him. He also could not commit deeply to this organization thinking that it has does not done its part to motivate employees like him. Despite this, what motivated him to come in this academy are because of his close friends working there, the accessibility from his home to the school, and having the chance to give back and serve the people. Despite his personality of ENFJ being congruent with the task of a teacher, it was not enough to compensate the negative attitude with his job and unsatisfied needs. The bottom line is that regardless of whatever measurements researchers use, it is imperative to understand as many factors as possible that could lead to motivation or demotivation of any employee. Managers must strive to look at all aspects that could help his/her employee to become a better person and help them achieve an improved performance for the betterment of the organization.

Research Presentation
The Limitations of Service-Learning in the Graduate School of Business:Implications brought by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Niku Vicente Service Learning Program Center for Social Concern and Action (COSCA),

De La Salle University is recognized as the Service-Learning Hub in Asia and Oceania by the global program for the promotion of Service-Learning in the Catholic Higher Education, UNISERVITATE. The University has implemented the pedagogy for many years and is now aiming to reach higher percentages of implementation. The Service-learning implementations in the Ramon V. del Rosario Sr. Graduate School of Business is a regular activity for most students every term. However, due to the effects of the Novel Coronavirus, the project implementers , the graduate students , must think of projects be responsive and adaptive to the situations and challenges brought by the pandemic. The researcher used the participant observation method since he is part of the whole process of the Service-Learning implementations. This research takes a critical look at the attempted institutionalization of service learning in the Philippine University particularly in the De La Salle University. It asks whether service-learning can become deeply embedded within the university especially of that in the Graduate School Program even in this time of the Pandemic; and if so, what exactly is becoming embedded. Specifically, this research suggests that there are substantial pedagogical and institutional limits to service-learning across the university. These limits, moreover, are shown to be inherent to the service-learning movement globally as the world continue to handle the communal effects brought by Novel Corona Virus. This research concludes by reframing some of the grounding assumptions of service-learning to position it as a disciplinary field more suited for becoming genuinely embedded within the graduate school program by promotion of the different types service projects.

Research Presentation
Adult Learning Principles on Student Satisfaction of Selected Colleges in Parañaque  Basis for Proposed Faculty Development Program

Jeremias De Guzman Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Open UniversityPhilippines

Literatures show that Adult Education or the Adult Learning principles is one of the least studied topics in the Philippines. Hence, this study looked into the Adult Learning principles. Specifically, this study aimed to determine the perception and level of students’ satisfaction on Adult Learning Principles practiced by the selected colleges in Parañaque, particularly the College of Divine Wisdom, Datamex College of Saint Adeline, and South CompEdge College. This study used the descriptive research method which is designed for the researchers to gather information about present existing conditions needed in the chosen field of study. The researchers created a total sample by selecting the appropriate proportion of the participants from each selected private college. Random sampling technique utilizing the Slovin’s formula was to identify the sampling population. Based on the findings, most of the adult learning principles presented in the study are often perceived and are rated satisfying by the students. The perception of the respondents and their level of satisfaction exhibit a significant strong positive correlation. Both the perception of the respondents their level of satisfaction to the adult learning principles shows a significant difference when they are grouped according to age. The results yielded in the study led to the conception of a proposed faculty development program that seeks to enhance the Adult Learning principles in the teaching practiced at the college level.

Research Presentation
“Speech Act of Request: Insights Into Strategies From Meranaw ESL Learners In Southern Philippines”

Juhaid AbbasMindanao State University, Main Campus Philippines

The linguistically and culturally diverse context of the Philippines, where English is known as the language of education and law, can illustrate various and exclusive types of politeness strategies and verbal behaviors as they vary from one context to another. With that, it is required for every speaker to at least know which communicative strategy is appropriate to use in every intercultural linguistic interaction in order to attain successful communication. Since the speech act of requesting is a face-threatening act that creates imposition to the negative face of the addressees and somehow opposition to the positive face of the speakers, this descriptive study is proposed which aims to illustrate its pattern among the Meranaw students in Southern Philippines, who are adherents of Islam, by employing a quantitative-qualitative research method. It specifically investigates the request strategies of the Meranaw ESL learners in general, as well as those strategies toward different groups of addressees: Meranaw; non-Meranaw; a person with superior status, equal status, and lower status; friends; and strangers. Moreover, this research attempts to demonstrate if there is a significant relationship of ethnic affiliations, social distance, and social status vis-a-vis request strategies. The data will be collected through a modified written discourse completion task (DCT) from the study of Jalilifar, Hashemian, and Tabatabaee (2011) which contains 25 hypothetical scenarios. Then, data will be coded and analyzed using the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSARP) framework of Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989), and will be statistically treated using chi-square test. Finally, the results will be supported and substantiated through interviews.

Research Presentation
Varayti ng Wika sa Twifame

RAYMUND M. PASION Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology Mati City, Davao Oriental Philippines

Ang pag-aaral na ito ay naglalayong tuklasin ang varayti ng wika na ginamit ng mga mag-aaral at guro sa Twitter, Facebook at Messenger (TWIFAME). Sinikap sagutin sa pag-aaral ang mga suliranin: (1) Anong varayti ng wika ang ginamit ng mga mag-aaral at guro sa TWIFAME? (2) Anong varayti ng wika ang kadalasang ginamit ng mga mag-aaral at guro sa TWIFAME? (3) Mayroon bang makabuluhang pagkakaiba sa varayti ng wikang ginamit ng mga mag-aaral at guro sa TWIFAME? Deskriptibo o palarawang pamamaraan ang ginamit sa pag-aaral na ito. Ang mga mensaheng ipinadala o kaya’y forwarded funny messages sa TWIFAME ay masusing tiningnan, inuri at inaanalisa ito batay sa varayti ng wikang ginamit ng mga mag-aaral at guro.
Natuklasan sa pag-aaral, na dahil sa patuloy na pagdami ng mga taong gumamit ng social media na mula sa iba’t ibang pangkat ng tao, iba-iba rin ang varayti ng wikang ginamit sa mga post sa TWIFAME. Ang mga ito ay paggamit ng code-mixing, code-switching, dayalek, ekolek, eyufemismo, idyolek, istandard na wika, sosyolek at ang taboo. Dahil dito, masasabing ang resulta ng kaalaman ng mga gumamit at paggamit hindi lamang ng kanilang unang wika kung hindi maging ang kanilang pangalawang wika. Ang varayti ng wika sa mga post sa TWIFAME ay nagpapatunay lamang na tunay na dinamiko ang wika sapagkat ito ay nagbabago. Malaki ang impluwensya o papel ng lipunan at ng social media sa pag-usbong ng mga varayti na ito. Kaya, kailangang bigyang-pansin ang mga kaganapang pangwika, ang pagbabago ng wika sa mga post sa TWIFAME bilang bagong kaparaanan ng bawat indibid

Research Presentation
Reap What You Sow: Lived Experiences of Modular Learners in The New Norm

Mignodel M. Morales  Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas

The prevailing health crisis shifted the paradigm of education, which abruptly changes the teaching-learning modalities from a traditional face-to-face approach to a Modular Distance Learning Modality (MDLM) to ensure the safety of Senior High School teachers and learners. The researchers aimed to explore learners’ lived experiences through a modular approach and created a learning model to enhance teaching modalities. The researchers utilized interpretative phenomenology through open-ended questions. The instrument solicited consent through an online platform to 20 purposively selected learners of the Department of Education enrolled in Senior High School. The data analysis used Colaizzi’s method to interpret the phenomena further. The researchers symbolized quality learner (seed) as the modular approach’s end goal based on the results. The study proposed a “bud of learning” model of modular teaching. It included the seed had been bombarded and affected, which resulted in inadequate nutrients (inaccessibility of resources), stunted growth (self-paced learning), weak stem (role confusion), rotted roots (time constraints), sunburned leaves (mental and physical exhaustion). Despite this, the seeds rooted through the insistent motivation and encouragement to survive to face the world’s challenges. The dew drops (safety of the learner), and the sunlight of independence positioned to continue nourishing the learning seeds. Based on the emerged themes, the 20 participants unanimously favored face to face than the modular approach, such as a budding plant needs a personal touch of the sower. It enabled faster learning based on experience and real-time feedback from the teacher to learners, which observed plants that given enough time and effort. The researchers concluded that many difficulties of modular implementation affect the bio-psycho-social of learners’ individuality. This study recommended creating a holistic teaching approach through the synchronous and blended learning experiences, increasing partnership with stakeholders, and ensuring accessibility of learning resources and Instructional Materials (IMs).

Research PresentationFull Paper
Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance in the In-House LET Review as Determinant of Licensure Performance

Vladimir Marie E. CabutotanPangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus Philippines

The performance of a university is mostly defined from the board ratings of its existing programs. Studies have been conducted on the best practices of universities to prepare their students for board exams. One of the preparations is the in-house review. In-house review has long been done in state universities. To support programs under Teacher Education department, LET In-house Review is administered in the College of Education of Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus. In this study, the research processes focus on the pre-service teachers’ performance in the in-house LET review as determinant of licensure performance. Thus, the researchers made used of the data gathered from the results of their pre-board examination along general education and professional education. Also, Professional Regulation Commission’s official result from the Licensure Exam for Teachers of the mentioned pre-service teachers was also deemed necessary to complete the output. Through a method that tests correlation, it was found out that there is a positive correlation between the two variables, therefore concluding that the pre-service teachers’ performance in their in-house review determines their licensure performance as well. It is therefore recommended that there must be continuous improvement of instruction and intense in-house review must be done to significantly prepare the LET takers in their future endeavor.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pantawid Pamliyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) Beneficiaries on Nutrition: Basis for an Information Material

Jobelle Rico Navarro
Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus Philippines


Poverty due to unemployment, low income wages and lack of education can result to household food insecurity. The national government’s Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) , has a huge capability to help improve health, nutrition and education of poor children by providing the poor family with cash grants with sets of conditions such as health check-ups, growth monitoring and increasing caregiver’s knowledge and awareness on nutrition through family development sessions. Mother’s knowledge on nutrition has a vital role in the maintenance of nutritional status of her children. Adequate knowledge regarding different aspects of feeding practices during pregnancy and during infancy of her child is very important especially among women as they are going to greatly influence the eating habits of this vulnerable group. This study determined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 4Ps beneficiaries on nutrition in Lingayen, Pangasinan. This study involved 141 mothers or guardians. Respondents are middle aged adults, married, high school graduates, jobless, earn less than the minimum wage, have 1-3 children and are Roman Catholic. Mothers possess maximum knowledge, positive attitude, and moderate extent of practices in nutrition. The demographic profile of mothers affects their knowledge, attitudes, and practices on nutrition. Attitudes, practices of mothers are affected by their knowledge on nutrition. Likewise, attitudes affect their practices on nutrition. It is recommended that mothers should try to utilize the information material to enhance their practices on nutrition, that the local government unit to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of their nutritional programs and similar or parallel studies may be conducted to explore other variables that affect the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers on nutrition.

Research Presentation
TAP TO PAY” — The Association of Mobile Wallet Applications (MWA)s’ Functions on MWA Usage 

Jester Vince De Torres
University of Sto Tomas


Mobile Wallet Applications (MWAs) have become a great tool for promoting cashless transactions rather than physically bringing a wallet or going to a bank. Financial institutions equip themselves with technologies for people to use MWAs at their convenience in their smartphones. When it comes to smartphones, Filipinos are recognized as one of the most active users in the world based on surveys. However, the Philippines remains behind in the widespread adoption of MWAs unlike other South East Asian (SEA) countries. These findings intrigued the researchers to investigate how familiarity and usage of MWA functions affect MWA usage among the Filipinos such as University of Santo Tomas (UST)’s Grade 11
Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) students. The study utilized the mixed method approach and gathered information through survey and interview. The results from the survey were further assessed by three key informants with backgrounds to financial technology, computer science, and finance specialization. With the frequencies gathered, the two-way Chi-square revealed that there is no association between MWA Function and MWA Usage. Our study discovered that MWA Usage does not depend on MWA Function (x2 of 13.8 < tab x2.05 (df=28), an indication that the rise or fall of MWA usage is due to other factors. The study also identified the most common reason for using MWAs among the UST Grade 11 ABM students which is for paying online transactions in their preferred MWAs. It is recommended for future researchers to identify other variables or factors that may affect MWA Usage.

Research Presentation
Gender Mainstreaming the Organizational Communication Policies and Practices of LGUs in Pangasinan

Presley V. de Vera
Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus Philippines


The study used gender mainstreaming to assess and describe the characteristics of the communication policies and practices adopted by Local Government Units (LGUs) in Pangasinan. Data sets are sex-disaggregated to enable analysis of the commonality and variation in the experiences of female and male LGU officials and staff as they partake in 66 communication roles within their organizational settings. Persons occupying different positions and employed in the different offices of LGUs were tapped as research participants. From the total list of 48 cities and municipalities in Pangasinan, six were selected randomly, namely: Asingan, Lingayen, Rosales, Sta. Barbara, Tayug, and Urdaneta City. The participants of the study in each city/municipality are selected LGU officials (City/Municipal Administrator and City/Municipal Human Resources Management and Development Officer) and LGU staff belonging to the following offices: (a) Office of the Mayor (OM), (b) Office of the Accountant (OA), and (c) Office of the Agriculturist (OA). Data were sourced via structured interview. Among the salient research findings, the LGUs have no specific department or unit that takes charge in formulating, implementing and regulating policies for internal and external communication. The LGUs have not adopted any localized implementation of communicationrelated policies. The LGUs differ in deploying administrative sanctions over their own officials or staff relative to communication-related offenses. The LGUs have no specific communication policies when it comes to: “Rules of courtesy in communication”, “Rules of handling classified or confidential information”, and “Rules for expressing constructive criticism”. Across the LGUs, female and male staff use English as the medium for all official communications. They use several channels of communication, although limited only to certain types of communication channels. They also resort to various cost-cutting measures to reduce operational expenses when it comes to the dispense of official communications. Across the LGUs, female and male staff encounter challenges in the different aspects of organizational communication. Female and male staff differ in their extent of encountering challenges depending on the specific LGU office and the aspect of organizational communication. On the merits of the research findings and conclusions, a set of recommendations are offered as guidelines in the later deployment of concrete extension projects that can be deployed by Pangasinan State University to the concerned LGUs in order to improve the quality of their organizational communication practices and be able to identify policies in relation thereto that are fair for both female and male employees.
Keywords: Gender mainstreaming, sex-disaggregated analysis, local government unit, organizational communication

Research Presentation
Exploring the Programming Skills, Compensation, Gender, and Experience of Software
Engineers in Global Perspective

Jake M. Laguador
Bicol State College of Applied Sciences and Technology, Naga City


Exploring software engineering in the global perspective describes it as a relevant profession for the 21st century and jobs for the future where the programming skills are needed to be updated, compensation packages are competitive, gender disparity is not anymore an issue and number of years of experience is considered a factor to master the required skills to become proficient. This article reviewed some relevant websites like payscale, and published research database like Google Scholar to answer the objective on presenting the common programming languages required by most countries, the average world salary for software engineers, gender break down for different countries under study and the years of experience required for various career levels. Results showed that the estimated annual salary of software engineers in the world average based on the 24 countries is US$36,078.68. There is a large disparity between male (85%) software engineers and females (15%) where the Philippines has the highest percentage of females with more than 20 percent while Italy has the lowest percentage of less than 4 percent. Java, Java Script,
Structured Query Language (SQL), C#, and C++ are considered the top programming languages as required skills by most countries. Six (6) in every ten (10) software engineers have early careers with 1-4 years of experience. The most common field of specialization of majority of software engineers came from computer science followed by the graduates of mathematics and information technology. The demand or software engineers and developers grows continuously in every developed and developing country making it one of the priority areas or field of specializations that most countries would like to strengthen in the labor market.

Research Presentation
Ladderized Bachelor Of Industrial Technology Students’ Online Learning Preparedness

jeff Pereyras Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus Philippines

Students on-line learning preparedness tends to affect most institutions, including all disciplines, from curricular growth and pedagogy to the entire academic division devoted to web-specific delivery. Measuring student readiness online can also be of considerable interest to schools in order to properly answer this problem. This research is focused on the administration of an online survey of randomly selected individuals particularly the two hundred and four (204) Ladderized Bachelor of Industrial Technology (LBIT) students of Pangasinan State University (PSU) – Lingayen Campus. The E-learning Readiness Evaluation Tool for the Philippine Higher Education Institutions has been embraced as an instrument. This instrument was
disseminated to the respondents utilizing Microsoft Forms. The results of the study revealed that students had positive insight into online learning, with the majority of respondents were associated with online learning. It is proposed that a simulated learning environment be developed for the benefit of students. It was manifested that the LBIT students of Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus are ready and competent when it comes to online learning..

Research PresentationFull Paper
“Implementation of National Drug Education Program (NDEP) in the Public Elementary
Schools in Region I: Basis For A Proposed Development Program”

Dionisia B. Fernandez Pangasinan State University-Open University Systems Philippines

Drug dealing and addiction have become major obstacles to the world’s economic and social progress. Concern for the prevention and reduction of drug abuse has motivated authorities to conduct further studies in order to design comprehensive and effective programs to fight the menace brought by illegal drug use. In line with this, the Philippine government created the National Drug Education Program (NDEP). NDEP is a comprehensive educational program which provides a holistic approach in preventing and eliminating the ill effects of drugs in the country. It aims to protect students from the adverse effects of dangerous drugs. DepEd Order (No. 12, s. 2009), entitled Strengthening NDEP in Schools, mandates all schools to implement the five components of NDEP namely: curriculum and instruction; co-curricular and ancillary services; teacher and staff development; parent education and community outreach; and research, monitoring, and evaluation. On the other hand, DepEd Order No. 30, s. 2018, also known as Preventive Drug Education Program and Policy on Curriculum and Instruction, instructs the elementary, secondary and tertiary curricula of all public and private schools, whether general, technical, vocational or agro-industrial as well as in non- formal and indigenous learning systems to integrate drug abuse prevention and control in their instruction. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of implementation of the National Drug Education Program (NDEP) in the public elementary schools in Region I as a basis in designing a proposed development program. Specifically, it sought to determine the profile of the NDEP coordinators in terms of age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, position or rank, number of years in the service, number of years as NDEP coordinators, and participation to relevant trainings. Also, the extent of NDEP implementation in relation to the five NDEP components and the problems or challenges encountered by the schools were determined. In addition, the significant relationship between the profile of the NDEP coordinators and the extent of the NDEP implementation in the schools was determined and analyzed. Based on the results of the study, a proposed development program for NDEP coordinators and other teachers was designed.

Research Presentation
ABSENTEEISM AND MOTIVATION OF LEARNERS: BASIS FOR AN ENHANCED LEARNERS’ DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Ernalin Cahutay PalamosDepartment of Education

This research was aimed to identify the factors of absenteeism and motivational level of learners to come up a with a program to alleviate poor school attendance. The study utilized descriptive type of research wherein the questionnaire was the main guide. Purposive sampling method was used in selecting respondents. Statistical tools were used to measure and analyze the results. Majority of the respondents were of age 9 which constituted 64 or 45.71%. Among the 140 respondents who participated in this study, 72 were male and 68 were female, most of them have two to three siblings, majority of their parents were high school graduate and both were employed. The assessment on the factors of absenteeism manifested direct and indirectly effect with the performance of the learners towards their attendance. There is a huge manifestation on the assessment of motivational level in terms of intrinsic motivation while, the extrinsic shows a moderately motivated level that is comparable to intrinsic motivational level among learners. The factors affecting absenteeism and the level of motivation are not dependent to each other. The study recommended the enhancement of counter absenteeism program to strengthen the partnerships and communication with parents/families and strengthen the foundation of factors that affects absenteeism to motivate the learners to have positive attitude towards school attendance and create a better result.

Research Presentation
Primary School Teachers Special Education (SPED) Orientation

Atutubo Catherine Anne Padilla
Pangasinan State University


This study aimed to answer the Primary School Teachers Special Education (SPED) Orientation. Specifically, the researchers attempted to sought answers the following queries regarding to the profile of the teachers with respect to their age, sex, civil status, employment qualification, educational attainment, religion, monthly income, and municipality/residence; Orientation Approach of Special Education (SPED) Teachers in terms of intellectual aspect, emotional aspect, psychological aspect and intellectual aspect. Another, is the Programs and Trainings of the SPED Teachers and lastly, the Problems Encountered by the teachers in handling SPED learners.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Organizational Commitment, Work Values and Attitude of Publis Secondary Principals in Region 1

Katherine Queroda
Department of Education


The study assessed the extent of manifestation of organizational commitment, work values and attitude of public secondary principals in Region 1. The descriptive method of research was utilized in the study and the stratified random sampling technique was also utilized in identifying the respondents who are public secondary principals in Region 1. The research instrument that was utilized in gathering the data is a questionnaire which validated by experts and eventually distributed and retrieved by the researcher. The data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using frequency counts, percentages, mean, Spearman’s rho Correlation; and MANOVA. The thorough analysis of data revealed salient findings. In terms of profile, the public secondary schools in Region 1 are dominated by female and married principals, and believers of Roman Catholic Church, and are products of State Universities and Colleges. In addition, most of them are occupying Principal 1 position, with doctorate degree, handling medium school, in the age bracket of 46-55 years old, and have less than 5 years of experience in the service. Public Secondary Principals in Region 1 manifest high organizational commitment particularly in affective, normative, and continuance. They also perform well based on OPCR rating and have very high level of work values and attitude toward work. Further, there is a significant correlation between the extent of manifestation of organization commitment along affective with the profile variables position and religion. Likewise, there is no significant difference in the overall Extent of Manifestation of Organizational Commitment of Principal I, II, III and IV.

Research Presentation
Women Economic Empowerment and Child Health Outcomes: An Analysis of the National Demographic and Health Survey, 2013

Bermas, Cheenie Rose Bandong Pangasinan State University

This research examined the link between women economic empowerment and child health outcomes in the Philippines. Three indicators were considered to measure women economic empowerment namely: women’s control over their own earnings, women’s participation in decision making regarding their own health care, and their participation in decisions regarding major household purchases. On the other hand, the child health outcomes considered in this study were childhood immunization and infant mortality. Multiple Logistic Regression analysis was used to analyze the data from the 2013 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey. The results show that women’s control over their own earnings serves as a protective factor in increasing the odds of childhood immunization. It was found to be statistically significant at alpha level .05 with p-value=0.030 and odds ratio= 1.225217. Infant mortality, on the other hand, was not significantly affected by women empowerment since it is possible that the bad condition of the mother’s health overpowers the effect of whether the mother is empowered or not.
The results of this research have provided empirical evidence to the argument that women economic empowerment may play a vital role in achieving better child health outcomes in the Philippines. Thereby, informing policymakers of the possible intervention to employ in order to improve the health condition of children in the Philippines. Although, several studies have already examined the relationship between women economic empowerment and child health outcomes in other countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, and India, to our knowledge, no study to date has analyzed links between women’s economic empowerment and child health outcomes in the Philippines.

Research Presentation
Preferred Laboratory Learning Strategies In Chemistry And Other Related Subjects Of Science Program Students In Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus

Bacton, Mc FerdiePangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

This research examined the link between women economic empowerment and child health outcomes in the Philippines. Three indicators were considered to measure women economic empowerment namely: women’s control over their own earnings, women’s participation in decision making regarding their own health care, and their participation in decisions regarding major household purchases. On the other hand, the child health outcomes considered in this study were childhood immunization and infant mortality. Multiple Logistic Regression analysis was used to analyze the data from the 2013 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey. The results show that women’s control over their own earnings serves as a protective factor in increasing the odds of childhood immunization. It was found to be statistically significant at alpha level .05 with p-value=0.030 and odds ratio= 1.225217. Infant mortality, on the other hand, was not significantly affected by women empowerment since it is possible that the bad condition of the mother’s health overpowers the effect of whether the mother is empowered or not. The results of this research have provided empirical evidence to the argument that women economic empowerment may play a vital role in achieving better child health outcomes in the Philippines. Thereby, informing policymakers of the possible intervention to employ in order to improve the health condition of children in the Philippines. Although, several studies have already examined the relationship between women economic empowerment and child health outcomes in other countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, and India, to our knowledge, no study to date has analyzed links between women’s economic empowerment and child health outcomes in the Philippines.

Research Presentation
Acceptability of Indigenous Plants: Papait (Mollugo verticilla linn), Kulitis (Amaranthus gracilis linn), and Pansit-pansitan (Pepperromis pellucida) in Making Smoothie

Fernandez, Girlie MejiaPangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

The study made use of some Indigenous Food Plants (IFPs) such as Papait (Mollugo verticillata linn.), Kulitis (Amaranthus gracilis linn.), and Pansit-pansitan (Pepperomia pellucid linn.) in Making Smoothie. The experimental type of research is used in the study. Thirty – seven (37) respondents evaluated the different formulations of Indigenous Plants Smoothie based on sensorial characteristics such as appearance, aroma, consistency, and flavor/taste. The data-gathering instrument used in the study was a 9-point hedonic scale describing the level of liking on the different formulation made. Specifically, answer the statement of the problem (1) the different formulations, 1/2, 1, 1 ½ cups of Indigenous Food Plants (2) the level of acceptability, appearance, aroma, and flavor/taste were very much like while the consistency was moderately like. (3) the best formulation, formulation 1 is the best formulation among the three it contains only a ½ cup Indigenous Food Plants and (4) the significant differences in the level of acceptability of the different formulations, There is significant difference in the level of acceptability of the Indigenous Plants Smoothie in terms of flavor/taste, and there are no significance differences in terms of appearance, aroma, and consistency. Based on the findings and conclusions, The Indigenous Plants Smoothie can be an alternative substitute to the commercial smoothies and shakes. Further study must be done on the shelf life of the Indigenous Plants Smoothie, etc.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Acceptability of Spearmint in Making Oatmeal Cookies

Santos, Mark Treshanna C.Pangasinan State University, Lingayen Campus

Cookies are favorite treat for kids and adult. However, most pastries like cookies are unhealthy if eaten in excess since it is filled with calories and sugar-heavy ingredients like refined sugar, refined wheat flour and added fats. Thus, it is better to have a healthier alternative recipe in making cookies. Today, healthier recipes of cookies are offered such as oatmeal cookies which have a high in fiber content, have less calorie and contains a significant amount of minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium and potassium compared to traditional sugar cookies. Spearmint, or Mentha spicata is a type of mint and is often used in health-food products, toothpaste, mouthwash, candy and chewing gum. It is widely used for culinary purposes, frequently used in medicine for its claimed therapeutic properties and used to help relieve symptoms of indigestion, nausea, vomiting and gas. Also, spearmint contains a large number of antioxidant compounds that help protect against and repair damage caused by free radicals. Thus this research was undertaken to improve the nutritional content of traditional cookies by adding spearmint that would make oatmeal cookies even more healthier. Further, this research determined the level of acceptability of the different formulations by adding spearmint in making oatmeal cookies through sensorial characteristics analysis. Three formulations were made to identify the best favored formulation. It was found that Formulation 1 (standard recipe in making oatmeal cookies + 1 cup spearmint) has the highest level of acceptance in preparing spearmint oatmeal cookie and had the highest acceptability descriptive rating. Moreover, further studies is recommended to improve the flavor or taste of spearmint cookies.

Research Presentation
Growth, Carcass Quality and Economic Viability of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Cultured in Aquaria Fed with Invasive Alien Species (IAS)-Based Diets

Mendoza, Gerondina Casaclang Pampanga State Agricultural University 

Management of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) could be done through its utilization as feed ingredient to cultured aquaculture species such as Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This study determined carcass quality, nutritional level of the diets, economic viability and growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus using IAS-based diets . There were five treatments replicated thrice in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) cultured in aquaria. Results showed that Oreochromis niloticus fed with the commercial feed showed highest weight gain and specific growth rate, however, computed means are not significantly different from diets three and four (p<0.05). In terms of the carcass of Oreochromis niloticus (dry and wet basis), the result of the study showed that biochemical parameters of the carcass among Oreochromis niloticus fed with test diets are comparable (p>0.05).This implies that there is no negative effect on the carcass quality of Oreochromis niloticus fed with IAS-based diets. It was also observed in the commercial feed the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Further, no significant difference between economic parameters among test-diets (p<0.05) was obtained. Based on the results of the study Invasive Alien Species (IAS)-based diets can be utilized as feed ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Research Presentation
Acceptability Of Canistel (Pouteria Campechiana) – Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Gelato

Viray, Helen Gonzales Pangasinan State University

This experimental research determined the acceptability in terms of appearance, aroma,consistency, mouthfeel, and flavor, and general acceptability of canistel (Pouteria campechiana)- ginger (Zingiber offinale) in different formulation in making gelato. This study was conducted in at Pangasinan State University Lingayen Campus. three formulation were used in the study F1 with 160 grams of canistel, F2 with 240 grams of canistel and F3 with 320 grams. The respondents of the study were the 40 children, 30 pregnant and lactating mothers, 7 ice cream and gelato expert, 3 teachers, who were selected through purposive sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Five Point Hedonic Scale for children and nine point hedonic scale for the adult respondent. There were three formulation replicated three times. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Average Weighted Mean, and Analysis of Variance, subjecting the data of the ANOVA with p value of .05 was used as the criterion in the null hypothesis to determined if there is significant or not significant difference among the formulation used. The study revealed that gelato prepared using all treatments were “extremely like” in terms of appearance, aroma, consistency, mouthfeel, flavor and general acceptability in terms of children respondent, while for the adults all are “very much like”. These results led to the conclusion that there is no significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of canistel and ginger extract in making gelato in terms of appearance, aroma, mouthfeel, flavor and general acceptability therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, there is significant difference in the level of acceptability of canistel fruit and ginger extract in making gelato in terms of consistency, therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

Research Presentation
Level of Gratification of Services and Priveleges of Persons With Disabilities (PWD) in Area I Vocational and Rehabilitation Center

Atutubo Catherine Anne Padilla Pangasinan State University

This study aimed to find out the level of gratification of services and privileges of persons with disability in Area I Vocational Rehabilitation Center. Especially, this study determined the respondents profile in terms of their age, sex, home, address, religion, civil status, occupation, educational attainment, length of stay in the center and type/types of disability. The Level of Gratification of Services and Privileges of Persons with Disability in Area I Vocational Rehabilitation Center. The problems they encountered in the agency.

Research PresentationFull Paper
The Effeciency of the Implementation of Tax Exemption Policy for the Persons with Disabilities (PWD) in Lingayen Pangasinan

Atutubo Catherine Anne Padilla
Pangasinan State University


The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol (CRPD, 2006) defines persons with disabilities to include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. There are numerous numbers of legislations and policies protecting them, one of this is the Republic Act No. 10754 an Act Expanding the Benefits and Privileges of Persons with Disability (PWD) approved in 2016. This study is focused the efficiency of the implementation of tax exemption policy for Persons with Disability (PWDs) in Lingayen, Pangasinan .The respondents were selected from the list given by the Municipal Social Welfare Development Office (MSWDO). The researchers look for them to interview them personally. 

Research PresentationFull Paper
Ecological and Socio – Economic Impact Assessment of the Toxic, Red Tide Dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense in Pujada Bay and Balete Bay, Davao Oriental, Southeastern Mindanao

Eleanor Vilela  DOSCST, Mati City, Davao Oriental

In the Philippines, the major organisms responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs) are dinoflagellates, mainly the toxic species of Pyrodinium bahamense. The coastal shores of Balete Bay which is within the Pujada Bay has also its share of occurrence of HABs. The study was conducted to determine the presence of dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense cyst species abundance and distribution in the coastal sediments from the two protected seascapes in the southeastern coast of Mindanao, Balete and Pujada Bay, Davao Oriental. It aimed to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense in its planktonic and cysts forms and determine the hydrographic chemical characteristics specifically chlorophyll-a concentration on the distribution of dinoflagellates. This study also examines the demographic characteristics, socio-economic status of the fishers and gleaners of the coastal residents and to determine the spatial distribution of dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense in the coastal areas of Balete and Pujada Bay.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Development of Online Marketing Platform for Selected Products of Pangasinan

Danlog, Kurt Philip Paningbatan Pangasinan State University

The study aimed to develop a website  of  online selling page when being used by stakeholders in searching for moringa, nipa and salt products. This paper focuses on development of the Online Marketing Platform and design a proposed portal for the moringa, nipa and salt products in Pangasinan based on the need and preferred feature of the stakeholders. The functionality of the system was then analyzed and design using UML diagram in order to determine the prototype of the system to identify the features of the website and finally to identify the level of acceptability of the online marketing platform. The result of the study shows that the features of the portal which includes uploading data of the products and automated order functions are usable based on the experts and user’s perspective. This research was then conceptualized for the benefit of the Moringa, Nipa, and Salt industry stakeholders.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Carrying the Cross: Being Homosexual Christians in the Philippines

Inere, Amram Jezron Balmaceda
Institutional Shareholder Services

As a predominantly Christian nation, the Philippines lies within the stronghold of Christian faith that is embedded in their personal and social life. As such, the issue of homosexuality relies to be a big question in the identity of a homosexual Christian. On one hand, there is the identity to be subjected to Christian doctrines (e.g. the issue of manhood and womanhood) and on the other hand, as a homosexual dealing with their own identity.
This study attempted to analyze how religion affects the identity of a homosexual Christian in their personal and social life. Given this, the result received varying views on how Christianity and homosexuality shaped the beingness of an individual. The Philippine context is an example of how homosexuality is tolerated, but the issue of acceptance towards the LGBTQ+ is an ongoing struggle that is being clamored to the Church and society.
In the framework of the Philippines, we are still far from creating a religious identity where one’s gender and sexuality is not an issue in serving God or religion. This is perhaps, an ongoing problem and issue of the Church and society at large as homosexual Christians continuously carrying the cross of equality and acceptance.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Kuwentong Bayan sa Panahon ng Hapon: Microhistories of the Ilaguenos during the Japanese Occupation, 1941-1945

Inere, Amram Jezron Balmaceda Institutional Shareholder Services

Kwentong Bayan sa Panahon ng Hapon: Microhistories of the Ilaguenos during the Japanese Occupation, 1941-1945, is a qualitative research that aimed to provide the everyday lives of Ilaguenos during the Second World War. The Japanese Occupation is an important turning point to Philippine history as it resulted in massive convolution of the society. This thesis was conducted in order to provide new interpretations about the war period. It presented interesting cases of local narratives and memories that cater in providing new perspective about the Japanese Occupation.
Due to the traditional historiography of the Japanese Occupation that focused mainly to its politico-military histories, this study was a response to that dilemma. By taking into account the social memories and experiences of the Ilaguenos, the study examined how the Japanese Occupation changed the everyday life of the people. Moreover, this study looked upon the national-local nexus by assessing the similarities and discrepancies found in the local social memory and the national narratives. Through social memory studies as the framework, the microhistories of the Ilaguenos were subjected to analysis. It showed how the narratives of the individual can be analyzed in the frameworks established between the local narratives and national context of the war period.

Research Presentation
Online Examination: A Case Study Exploring College Instructors’ Perceptions and Experience of Online Course in the New Normal

Christian Elamparo Cariaso
President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines


This study aimed to explore the college instructors’ perceptions and experience in the implementation of online examination in synchronous and asynchronous learning in a University. The research was conducted with 20 college instructors during the first semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. The data obtained from experienced in utilizing Edmodo Application, messenger, and e-mails in the conduct of online examination of students that were analyzed descriptively. Coding and categorizing were used to analyze the data. To have a meaningful structure, themes that were revealed as a result of the compilation of encodings were arranged appropriately. The results revealed that the following perceptions and experience occurred in the process of instructors before, during and after online exams of students, their computer literacy, the nature of test being new to the instructors and students in the new normal, the presentation of questions in a computer-generated conditions and technical difficulties and their attitudes towards online examinations. These concerns and attributes were categorized into themes such as pace of learning in an online examination, attitudes towards online examination platforms, veracity of assessment and evaluation of learning and technical issues and difficulties. The instructors’ technical skills and attitudes are important factor in the emergence of problems and difficulties. The leading outcome of the study was the need for an orientation program which will assist the faculty members in the conduct of online examinations.

Research Presentation
IMPLEMENTATION OF GIRL SCOUTS PROGRAM: BASIS FOR AN ENHANCED DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Valiente, Desiree Flores DEPED -Camarin Elementary School


Girl Scouts Program must be considered as the best environment in shaping girls’ personality and characteristic. This study aimed to assess the Implementation of Girl Scouts Program in Caloocan North 1 District. This research was conducted to determine the need for GSP Coordinators, Scoutmasters and troop leaders for their improvement and development of training programs that may be proposed to the scouting movement. Descriptive research method was used wherein the survey questionnaire was the main instrument in collecting data. Respondents of the study were 177 grade Five learners and 96 troop leaders during the school year 2019-2020. In this research, the following findings were obtained: Learners’ and Teachers’ respondents assessed the Girl Scouts program in terms of Girl Scout Week, Investiture and Rededication, School’s Day Camp, Council Camp, Division Badge Fair and Troop Leaders as “Implemented’ it declared that Girl Scouts of the Philippines brings good influence and effects to a girl scout’s life. Other result revealed that GSP in terms of Schedule of Activities was “Seldom Implemented” only which means a failure on the implementation. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between learners’ and teachers’ assessment on the implementation of Girl Scouts Program. On this basis, it is therefore recommended that learners must engage fully with scouting activities, teachers and other school personnel must participate with the program, scoutmasters and troop leaders should undergo trainings, GSP coordinators must design a development plan to enhance scouting program that would create a quality service to scouting.

Research Presentation
Correlational study of GPA of students with thier Acadamic Performance for Academic Year 2020-2021

MADERO, DANIELLE BALTAZAR PANGASINAN STATE UNIVERISTY-LINGAYEN CAMPUS

Grade Point Average is a number that indicates how well or how high you scored in your courses on average. It’s meant to score you during your studies and shows whether your overall grades have been high or low. This number is then used to assess whether you meet the standards and expectations set by the degree program or university. It will show metric or calculation only on how good a student an individual is, and whether he/she been doing well during the degree program, with that GPA gives a broader indication of your overall grades and scores.
On the other hand academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.
This research proposal will determine if there is a correlation between the Academic performance of first year students for Academic year 2020-2021 in line with their GPA since there is no College Admission Test administered for the said Academic Year.

Research Presentation
Perceived Stress and Anxiety of Pangasinan State University amidst the Covid-19 Pandemic

MADERO, DANIELLE BALTAZAR PANGASINAN STATE UNIVERSITY-LINGAYEN CAMPUS

Experiencing an infectious disease outbreak can cause fear, anxiety, and stress.1-5 Along with overwhelming uncertainty and new behavioral ‘norms’ (e.g., cloth face covering or mask wearing, physical distancing), the COVID-19 pandemic has changed how we meet our daily needs, how we socially interact, and whether, how, and where we work. According to Octiviano (2017), people tend to experience most of the stresses at the workplace. The work can be demanding because of deadlines, there are colleagues who are difficult to work with, and so many more. This may make the employee worried, tired, overwhelmed and exhausted. However, with this kind of working environment it pushes an employee to strive harder to do better and to meet the deadlines. Public health actions, such as social distancing, can make people feel isolated and lonely and can increase stress and anxiety. However, these actions are necessary to reduce the spread of COVID-19. This research proposal will try to determine the teaching and non-teaching employees in addressing stress and anxiety amidst the pandemic, work arrangements and the like through the different coping mechanism and debriefing activities that will also serve as an activity to debrief the students.

Research Presentation
READING MOTIVATION APPROACH UTILIZED BY PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF CLUSTER III OF ALAMINOS CITY DIVISION

Allam, Jomar Padlan
Department of Education – Region 1 – SDO-Alaminos City


This study was conducted to determine the level of utilization of the reading motivation approaches by public elementary school teachers in Cluster III of Alaminos City Division during the school year 2019 – 2020. Specifically, it delved on determining the profile of the respondents, the level of utilization of teachers on the reading motivation approaches, and the level of seriousness of the problems encountered by the teachers in utilizing the reading motivation approaches. Likewise, it determined the significance of the difference of the level of utilization of the public elementary schools on the reading motivation approaches across their profile variables. Moreover, it determined if the level of seriousness of the problems encountered in utilizing the reading motivation approaches differ significantly across the respondent-teachers’ profile variables. The study made use of the descriptive-survey method of research with the FivePoint Likert Questionnaire as the main tool used in gathering pertinent data to this study. Based from the findings and conclusions of this study, the researcher highly recommends the following: 1) Teachers may continue attending seminars related to teaching to enhance or sustain their capacity to teach reading specifically in equipping themselves with the recent trends in making pupils enjoy reading; 2) Teachers may establish an open communication with their school administrators regarding their issues on support they need; 3) Teachers may be encouraged to continue pursuing their graduate degrees for it may contribute to the levelling up of their competencies in teaching; 4) School administrators may extend support to their teachers, through coaching or mentoring, with regards to their observed weaknesses which consequently improve their performance and that of the pupils; 5) School administrators may allocate a portion of their MOOE for faculty development so that teachers would not be making use of their own financial resources in attending in-service trainings/seminars; 6) The involvement of parents in the academic performance especially in reading must be strengthened through quarterly meetings or card day, and 7) A similar study be conducted in a different setting and which may include other variables which the researcher may deem essential.

Research PresentationFull Paper
The Limitations of Service-Learning in the Graduate School of Business: Implications brought by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Vicente, Niku E.
De La Salle University


De La Salle University is recognized as the Service-Learning Hub in Asia and Oceania by the global program for the promotion of Service-Learning in the Catholic Higher Education, UNISERVITATE. The University has implemented the pedagogy for many years and is now aiming to reach higher percentages of implementation. The Service-learning implementations in the Ramon V. del Rosario Sr. Graduate School of Business is a regular activity for most students every term. However, due to the effects of the Novel Coronavirus, the project implementers , the graduate students , must think of projects be responsive and adaptive to the situations and challenges brought by the pandemic. The researcher used the participant observation method since he is part of the whole process of the Service-Learning implementations. This research takes a critical look at the attempted institutionalization of service learning in the Philippine University particularly in the De La Salle University. It asks whether service-learning can become deeply embedded within the university especially of that in the Graduate School Program even in this time of the Pandemic; and if so, what exactly is becoming embedded. Specifically, this research suggests that there are substantial pedagogical and institutional limits to service-learning across the university. These limits, moreover, are shown to be inherent to the service-learning movement globally as the world continue to handle the communal effects brought by Novel Corona Virus. This research concludes by reframing some of the grounding assumptions of service-learning to position it as a disciplinary field more suited for becoming genuinely embedded within the graduate school program by promotion of the different types service projects.

Research Presentation
Online Examination: Exploring College Instructors’ Perceptions and Experience of Online Distance Learning in a University

Cariaso, Christian, Elamparo
President Ramon Magsaysay State University


This study aimed to explore the college instructors’ perceptions and experience in the implementation of online examination in synchronous and asynchronous learning in a University. The research was conducted with 20 college instructors during the first semester of the 2020-2021 academic year. The data obtained from experienced in utilizing Edmodo Application, messenger, and e-mails in the conduct of online examination of students that were analyzed descriptively. Coding and categorizing were used to analyze the data. To have a meaningful structure, themes that were revealed as a result of the compilation of encodings were arranged appropriately. The results revealed that the following perceptions and experience occurred in the process of instructors before, during and after online exams of students, their computer literacy, the nature of test being new to the instructors and students in the new normal, the presentation of questions in a computer-generated conditions and technical difficulties and their attitudes towards online examinations. These concerns and attributes were categorized into themes such as pace of learning in an online examination, attitudes towards online examination platforms, veracity of assessment and evaluation of learning and technical issues and difficulties. The instructors’ technical skills and attitudes are important factor in the emergence of problems and difficulties. The leading outcome of the study was the need for an orientation program which will assist the faculty members in the conduct of online examinations.

Research PresentationFull Paper
IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL DRUG EDUCATION PROGRAM (NDEP) IN THE PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN REGION I: BASIS FOR A PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Fernandez, Dionisia Balauza
Pangasinan State University


Drug dealing and addiction have become major obstacles to the world’s economic and social progress. Concern for the prevention and reduction of drug abuse has motivated authorities to conduct further studies in order to design comprehensive and effective programs to fight the menace brought by illegal drug use. In line with this, the Philippine government created the National Drug Education Program (NDEP). NDEP is a comprehensive educational program which provides a holistic approach in preventing and eliminating the ill effects of drugs in the country. It aims to protect students from the adverse effects of dangerous drugs. DepEd Order (No. 12, s. 2009), entitled Strengthening NDEP in Schools, mandates all schools to implement the five components of NDEP namely: curriculum and instruction; co-curricular and ancillary services; teacher and staff development; parent education and community outreach; and research, monitoring, and evaluation. On the other hand, DepEd Order No. 30, s. 2018, also known as Preventive Drug Education Program and Policy on Curriculum and Instruction, instructs the elementary, secondary and tertiary curricula of all public and private schools, whether general, technical, vocational or agro-industrial as well as in non- formal and indigenous learning systems to integrate drug abuse prevention and control in their instruction. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of implementation of the National Drug Education Program (NDEP) in the public elementary schools in Region I as a basis in designing a proposed development program. Specifically, it sought to determine the profile of the NDEP coordinators in terms of age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, position or rank, number of years in the service, number of years as NDEP coordinators, and participation to relevant trainings. Also, the extent of NDEP implementation in relation to the five NDEP components and the problems or challenges encountered by the schools were determined. In addition, the significant relationship between the profile of the NDEP coordinators and the extent of the NDEP implementation in the schools was determined and analyzed. Based on the results of the study, a proposed development program for NDEP coordinators and other teachers was designed.

Research Presentation
Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance in the In-House LET Review as Determinant of Licensure Performance

CABUTOTAN, VLADIMIR MARIE ESTEPA
Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus


The performance of a university is mostly defined from the board ratings of its existing programs. Studies have been conducted on the best practices of universities to prepare their students for board exams. One of the preparations is the in-house review. In-house review has long been done in state universities. To support programs under Teacher Education department, LET In-house Review is administered in the College of Education of Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus. In this study, the research processes focus on the pre-service teachers’ performance in the in-house LET review as determinant of licensure performance. Thus, the researchers made used of the data gathered from the results of their pre-board examination along general education and professional education. Also, Professional Regulation Commission’s official result from the Licensure Exam for Teachers of the mentioned pre-service teachers was also deemed necessary to complete the output. Through a method that tests correlation, it was found out that there is a positive correlation between the two variables, therefore concluding that the pre-service teachers’ performance in their in-house review determines their licensure performance as well. It is therefore recommended that there must be continuous improvement of instruction and intense in-house review must be done to significantly prepare the LET takers in their future endeavor.

Research Presentation
“A STUDY OF ETHNOBOTANICAL PLANTS USED BY ABERLING TRIBE IN MANGATAREM, PANGASINAN

FERNANDEZ,GIRLIE MEJIA
NATURAL SCIENCE DEPT.


The aim of this study is to identify the medicinal plants used by the indigenous people of Barangay Lawak Langka Mangatarem, Pangasinan to investigate the extent to which the plants are used and to collect information from indigenous people, concerning the use of medicinal plants in Mangatarem, Pangasinan. We studied the local knowledge and uses of medicinal plants among the Aberling people in Mangatarem, Pangasinan by documenting the traditional practices. In many developing countries, people mostly rely on ethnomedicinal knowledge to treat diseases, because western-based health are system is inefficient due to poor staffing or because western drugs are expensive. Ethnomedicine is a system of maintaining health and curing diseases based on folk beliefs and traditional knowledge, skills, methods and pratices. Ethnomedicinal knowledge is disappearing because of rapid socio-economic, environmental and technological changes. Therefore, ethnomedicinal knowledge must documented and conserved through systematic studies before it is lost forever ( Mohammed et al., 2006). The focus of ethnobotany is on how plants have been or are used, managed and perceived in human societies and includes plants used for food, medicine, rituals, social life and others the relationship between plants and human cultures is not limited to the use of plants for food, clothing and shelter but also includes their uses for religious ceremonies, ornamentation and health care ( Khan et al., 2007, 2008). Ethnobotanical studies are often significant in revealing locally important plant species especially for the discovery of drugs.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Religious Variables and their Effects on Individual Economic Growth

John Aldrin Y. Mana-ay
Pangasinan State University Lingayen Campus (Alumni of Economics Department)


The study revealed that those who attend church missions from 21 years and above are the pastors, deacons, and missionaries who ever since considered the ministry as their lifetime vocation. Giving of tithes and offerings is moderately influential for when an individual gives his tithes, he is much more willing to work harder, invest more, and convinced to find ways on how to get financial aid, thus escalating his chance of earning more. Giving donation is highly influential to income since it persuades an individual to work hard and earn extra income to support his advocacy. Reading the Bible and prayer is very highly influential to income while obeying Bible laws and attending church service is highly influential; joining religious organization is moderately influential to income. Giving of tithes and offerings are significantly related to income while donation do not. Reading the Bible, obeying Bible laws, and attending church significantly relate to income while the rest which refers to prayer, joining religious organization, and belief in heaven or hell do not. Result of the study suggests that there is a relationship between religion and individual economic growth in terms of giving tithes, offering, donations, and attending church service. Religious variables can both complement as well as motivate development. Religious people are agents of advocacy, funding innovation, empowerment, social movements and service delivery. Religious variables act as catalyst for accumulation of social capital as pre-requisite of growth. It increases the levels of trust and reduce levels of corruption and criminal activity. It also encourages thrift which would stimulate saving, investment and thereby economic growth..

Research Presentation
TEACHING STRATEGIES OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) TEACHERS IN RATBURANA DISTRICT, BANGKOK, THAILAND

Valenzuela, Normaliza Tamayo
Pangasinan State University


Teaching strategies help teachers to achieve goals and objectives. Using descriptive comparative research, this study determined the teaching strategies of ESL teachers in Ratburana district, Bangkok, Thailand in the academic year 2019-2020. Specifically, it determined the demographic profile of the ESL teachers, sought the extent of the utilization of the teaching strategies and the level of seriousness of the problems encountered by teachers in teaching ESL, investigated whether there was a significant relationship between the demographic profile and sought the extent of the utilization of the teaching strategies, and determined whether there was a significant relationship between the demographic profile and
the level of seriousness of the problems encountered by teachers. The gathered responses were tabulated, statistically treated, and analyzed using simple frequency counts and their corresponding percentages analysis, average weighted mean computed using a table mean scale values, Point biserial Correlation, Pearson Product –Moment of Correlation and Chi-square.

Research Presentation
In vitro cytotoxic activity of Pittosporum pentandrum (blanco) merr. (Pittosporaceae) crude leaf extract against mcf-7 human breast cancer cell lines

Casiquin, Kevin Roie Tadeo
Pangasinan State University


Breast cancer is one of the major global health issues today. It is one of the most common cancer among women in both developed and less developed countries. Due to poverty and lack of medical facilities, breast cancer is thought to be more evident in less developed countries with almost 58% of breast cancer death than in developed countries with 50% deaths. The study aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Pittosporum pentandrum against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines through MTT assay. P. pentandrum crude leaf extract showed cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 18.04 ug/ml and considered moderately cytotoxic. Moreover, it was observed that as concentration of P. Pentandrum increases the cytotoxic activity also increases. ANOVA showed significant difference between cytotoxicity of various concentrations of P. pentandrum and doxorubicin. The result indicates that P. pentandrum crude leaf extract has cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines

Research Presentation
ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVES IN SELECTED RIVERINE AREAS OF BINMALEY PANGASINAN

Doria, Mark Anthony M.
Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation


This study was conducted to to assess the abundance of mangroves along the nine selected riverine barangays in Binmaley Pangasinan which were: Balogo, Biec, Camaley, Canaoalan, Linoc, Manat, Naguilayan, Tombor and Sabangan, Transect Quadrat method was used to obtain data on the structure of the mangrove community. Furthermore, IUCN global status of species of mangrove that were found on he study site was retrieved to determine the species that needs to be conserved. Results revealed that there were 14 mangrove species belonging to 10 families. The most dominant species was Rhizophora apiculata with 4,464 indiviudals and a relative abundance of 59.86%. The barangay with the highest mangrove population was barangay Sabangan with a population of 1146 and the lowest was barangay Manat with a population of 370 . The barangay with highest species richness was barangay Sabangan with 9 species present and the least was barangay Manat with 5 species present. The diversity of mangroves was calculated using Shannon-weiner index and was interpreted using Fernando scale of biodiversity. Results showed that barangay Manat had the highest diversity index with 1.43 and the lowest is barangay Linoc with 0.33. The highest mean density was from barangay Sabangan with 1.273/m2. Physico-chemical characterstics of water or water paramters such as water depth, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity was also taken and recorded in every barangay. Mangrove population, were correlated to the water parameters using Pearson Correlation coefficient.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Analysis of Moves on Philippine Suicide Notes

Rayon, Leo Jr. D.
Davao del Norte State College


As suicide notes are considered markers of severity of the suicide acts, they often function to convince survivors that the act committed or about to commit is justifiable. This study analyzed the move structure of suicide notes written by Filipino suicide-completers based on forensic discourse analysis though Abaalkhail’s (2015) rhetorical move structure model. This study investigated 59 genuine suicide notes written in English and Filipino languages. The findings revealed that Filipino note-writers structured their suicide notes by addressing a recipient, justifying suicide, sharing emotional sentiments, expressing love, asking forgiveness or expressing sorry, and signing off. The occurrence and order of structure were cyclical and flexible with addressing a recipient positioned at the beginning and the move signing off at end structure. The study recommends to embark on a larger Filipino suicide corpus for a wider scope and interpretation and typify characteristics of suicide structure written in English and Filipino languages.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Nephroprotective Effect of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) Stalk Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Bacton, Mc Ferdie Costales
Pangasinan State University


Diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of the world. Celery (Apium graveolens L.) contains numerous flavonoid such as luteolin wherein the increased level of which may mediate beneficial effects on metabolic pathways implicated in insulin resistance and DM pathophysiology. The main objective of this study is to determine the nephroprotective effect of celery stalk extract in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Specifically, it aims to measure the serum urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels of Alloxan induced diabetic rats treated with the celery extract and Glibenclamide and correlate the results, compare and contrast the levels of the serum urea, uric acid and creatinine between diabetic rats treated with celery stalk extract and Glibenclamide, and describe the histopathological changes on the kidney tissues of rats in the experimental groups with respect to the control. The research design is experimental. The study population was composed of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental rats were divided into 4 groups. A significant increase on FBS for all three groups treated with Alloxan (p=<0.01), with two rat casualties after induction, ANOVA showing a significant difference on serum creatinine on group treated with Celery (p=<0.01) which showed significantly higher levels of creatinine compared to the other groups and ANOVA of Bilateral Histopathological Examination showing a significant difference in terms of epithelial changes on group treated with Celery (p=0.04). Careful consideration must be done in choosing which part of Celery to use in pharmaceutical studies. As this study has shown, the use of the celery stalk extract demonstrated contradictory results as nephrotoxic compared to the use of the leaves and seeds of the same plant in previous studies.

Research PresentationFull Paper
Authentic Assessment in Flexible Learning in Higher Education

Castillo, May Corpuz
Pangasinan State University – Alaminos City Campus


Owing to the continuing global competition, the educational sector strives to address the imminent need to keep up with the challenges of the times despite the inordinate effects of the pandemic. In accordance to the paradigm shift from the traditional curriculum to Outcomes-Based Education (OBE), learning is focused on the diverse ways to master skills and provide meaningful results from learning activities and that learning should be student-centered. As a key challenge, teachers need to utilize their creativity and explore ways on how to ensure that the students acquire the required competencies and skills in the economies of the 21st century. Some of the issues faced by teachers nowadays are about the assessment to be used to determine the effectiveness of the instructional design, unaddressed communication competency, and inappropriate focus on the teacher instead of the learners and the tasks (Limon & Vallente, 2016). It also puts to question how to match the needs and expectation of the workplace with what skills the students have acquired. Teacher education programs utilizing authentic assessment is becoming a pedagogical trend across the globe (Darling-Hammond, L. & Snyder, 2000). It is claimed that AA has advantages over conventional assessments in terms of validity specifically in requiring learners to practice higher order thinking skills (HOTS) (Indiana University, 2020). This approach includes written pieces, check lists, rubrics, and self/peer assessments. However, there had been some gray areas in this approach. Some researchers question how “authentic” can be accurately is defined. There are also controversies as to the applicability of AA given the diverse kinds of students in various contexts. Relatively very few studies were conducted yet on AA in the country and as to date, there is a limited number of studies pertaining to this in the language and communication areas based on the research databases reviewed. For this reason, this research is conducted. This study aims to conduct an investigation on the use of Authentic Assessments (AA) in higher education based on available literature from selected research databases. This is a qualitative research and it follows the essence of a literature review as the researcher intends to evaluate the existing literature, to identify a gap in the research area, to place her study in the existing research and identify future research.

Research Presentation

Directory of Participants

Allam, Jomar Padlan / Department of Education
Amado, Fae Jaye Manio / Department of Education
Aqui, Desiree Joy , Caalim / Department of Education
Atutubo Catherine Anne Padilla / Pangasinan State University
Bacton, Mc Ferdie Costales / Pangasinan State University
Balaba Lovely Piloton / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Bautista, Roel A. / Pangasinan State University
Bermas, Cheenie Rose, Bandong / Pangasinan State University
Cabanban, Michael John, San Lorenzo / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Cabutotan, Vladimir Marie Estepa / Pangasinan State University-Lingayen Campus
Calugay, Jessica, Maling / Pangasinan State University
Cariaso, Christian Elamparo / President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines
Carumba, Al, Dignadice / Bilingual Program Teacher- Thailand
Carzon, John Christian Rosario / Department of Education
Casiquin, Kevin Roie T. / Pangasinan State University
Castillo, May Corpuz / Pangasinan State University – Alaminos City Campus
Christian Elamparo Cariaso / President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines
Collado, Rex Mithore DG. / No Affiliation
Correa, Marianne Jayag / Suksanareewittaya School, Bangkok, Thailand
Dacasin, Mike De Guzman / Department of Education
Dagunan, Jessie James Ramirez / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Danlog, Kurt Philip Paningbatan / Pangasinan State University
Dante M. Mendoza / Pampanga State Agricultural University
De Guzman, Jeremias divinagracia / Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Open University
De Vera, Leo Jr., Pegalan / Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus
De Vera, Presley, Viray / Faculty at PSU Lingayen Campus
Dela Cruz, Anthony, Duatin / Perpetual Help College of Pangasinan
Dimalanta, Susana Aquino / Department of Education
Dimalanta, Renson Castro / Department of Education
Doria, Mark Anthony M. / Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
Doria, Sheena, Dela Cruz / Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus
Entendencia, Virginia De Guzman / DepEd/Mangaldan National High School
Eustaquio, Aileen Arvie Estrada / No Affiliation
Fernandez, Dionisia Balauza / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Fernandez, Girlie Mejia / Pangasinan State University
Fernandez, Jennie, Bernardo / Pangasinan State University
Garland De Guia Rivera / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Geñoso Janice Paler / Watplooksattha School, Bangkok Thailand
Guinto, Vemma Mae, Ramirez / Pangasinan State University/ PARESSU Inc
H. Abbas, Juhaid / Mindanao State University, Main Campus
Honey Lou Costan Gamana / Wat Chaengron School – Bangkok, Thailand
Inere, Amram Jezron Balmaceda / Institutional Shareholder Services
Jasmin Joy R. Larioza / Pangasinan State University
John Aldrin Y. Mana-ay / Pangasinan State University Lingayen Campus (Alumni of Economics Department)
Laguador, Jake Malabanan / Bicol State College of Applied Sciences and Technology
Layag, Sigfred Pacsay / Pangasinan State University
Madero, Danielle Baltazar / Pangasinan State University
Morales, Mignodel M. / Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas
Matugas Jr., Sergio Arrago / Biliran Province State University
Mendoza, Gerondina, Casaclang / Pampanga State Agricultural University (Faculty)/Pangasinan State University (student)
Montebon, Dexter, Balista / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Nanat, Mark Alvin, Cacho / Department of Education
Navarro, Jobelle Rico / Pangasinan State University
Nineza, Geraldine Mamaril / Pangasinan State University
Ortiz, Erwin S. / Pangasinan State University – Infanta Campus
Palamos, Ernalin Cahutay / Department of Education
Pasion, Raymund M. / Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology, Mati City, Davao Oriental
Pastor, Bench S. / ERAAR, Inc
Pereyras, Jeff Galapon / PSU Lingayen Campus
Punzalan, Christopher, Habunatalia / Philippine Normal University
Queroda, Catherine De Vera / Department of Education
Quinto, Charito De Guzman / Department of Education
Quinto, Michelle, Orienza / Pangasinan State University
Rayon, Leo Jr. D. / Davao del Norte State College
Runes, Arthur / Wat Wisetkarn School, Bangkok,Thailand
Santos, Mark Treshanna C. / Pangasinan State University
Sarip, Hasmina D. / Mindanao State University
Simbulan, Krigher Corpuz / Pangasinan State University
Soverano, John Rey Sta. Rosa / Bicol State College of Applied Sciences and Technology
Ubaub, Christine Kiers, Añasco / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Urbano, Jomar, Mercado / Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology
Valenzuela, Normaliza Tamayo / Pangasinan State University
Valiente, Desiree Flores / Department of Education
Vicente, Niku E. / De La Salle University
Vilela, Eleanor Mendoza / Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology, Mati City, Davao Oriental
Viloria, Lowie, Viloria / Pangasinan State University, Open University Systems
Viray, Helen, Gonzales / Pangasinan State University

Organizer and Scientific Committee

AMRC2020
in conjunction with RACER2020

Dr. Randy Joy Ventayen
Dr. Jun S. Camara
Ms. Vemma Mae Guinto
Ms. Sharlene Cherry S. De Guzman
Dr. Nova Arquillano
Dr. Lina T. Cancino
Dr. Ma Jasmine De Guzman
Mr. Eleazar De Jesus
Dr. Potenciano Conte, Jr.
Dr. Karen Lea Estira
Dr. Phillip G. Queroda
Ms. Elnora Dudang
Ms. Caren Ventayen
Dr. Nieva Espinosa
Mr. Bench S. Pastor
Ms. Karissa R. Gonzales

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